An Empirical Investigation of GDP, Industrialization, Population, Renewable Energy and CO2 Emission in Bangladesh: Bridging EKC-STIRPAT Models

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  • Faria Hossain Borsha Department of Economics, Premier University, Chattogram 4203, Bangladesh
  • Liton Chandra Voumik Department of Economics, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh
  • Mamunur Rashid Department of Information Technology, School of Business and Technology, Emporia State University, Emporia, KS-66801, USA
  • Mihir Kumar Das Module Leader and Lecturer, Business and Enterprise, Global Banking School, UK
  • Nina Stępnicka Faculty of Law and Social Sciences, The Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Uniwersytecka 15 Street, 25-406 Kielce, Poland
  • Grzegorz Zimon Department of Finance and Accountancy, Faculty of Management, Rzeszow University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland



Bangladesh; STIRPAT; Carbon dioxide emission; Renewable Energy; Industrialization; Sustainability


This research paper explores the presence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) in Bangladesh, delving into the intricate relationships among GDP, industrialization, renewable energy utilization, and CO2 emissions. Utilizing the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) model, our investigation spans the 1992 to 2021 timeframe, offering a comprehensive analysis of the interplay between these crucial factors in the context of Bangladesh's environmental sustainability. In this study, the F-bound test is utilized to establish the cointegration relationship among variables. And the short-run and long-run elasticity of explanatory variables is investigated by employing the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach. This research also employed a pairwise granger causality test to explore the direction of causality between them. Empirical results prove the existence of a cointegration relationship among CO2 emission, GDP per capita, a quadratic form of GDP per capita, renewable energy, industrialization, and population. The findings provide strong support for the presence of the EKC in the case of Bangladesh. Besides that, significant inverse relationship was also obtained between CO2 emission and renewable energy consumption. Additionally, the study found the detrimental long-term effects of industrialization on the environment. The EKC hypothesis argues that Bangladesh can accomplish sustainable economic development. To attain the goal country should adopt appropriate government policies and ensure their implication. This study strongly advocates using sustainable energy sources and implementing regulations on pollutant industries.


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How to Cite

Borsha, F. H., Voumik, L. C., Rashid, M., Das, M. K., Stępnicka, N., & Zimon, G. (2024). An Empirical Investigation of GDP, Industrialization, Population, Renewable Energy and CO2 Emission in Bangladesh: Bridging EKC-STIRPAT Models. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 14(3), 560–571.




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