Unveiling the Implications of Energy Poverty for Educational Attainments in Pakistan: A Multidimensional Analysis
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Keywords:Multidimensional Energy Poverty, Energy Development Index, Educational Attainments, School Enrollment Ratio, Sustainable Development Goals, Energy Poverty
AbstractThe United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognize energy poverty as a significant issue affecting developing and developed countries. Goal 7 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 7) focuses on energy poverty (EP) and aims to achieve universal access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy services by 2030. This study examines the relationship between energy poverty and educational attainments in Pakistan using time series data from 1990 to 2020. A multidimensional energy development index (EDI) is constructed to measure energy poverty. By employing robust econometric techniques such as the Johansen cointegration test, fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS), canonical cointegration regression, and the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation, this research uncovers empirical findings that offer valuable insights into the crucial role of energy poverty as a determinant of educational attainments. The findings of this study reveal that improvements in energy development (characterized by a decline in energy poverty) and real GDP per capita, significantly enhance school enrollments in Pakistan. Moreover, it is also observed that general poverty and a high pupil-teacher ratio negatively influence educational attainments. These results emphasize that inadequate access to and affordability of energy act as formidable barriers, impeding the educational journey of children and adolescents. These findings also highlight the urgent need to address energy poverty as a paramount policy concern to enhance development outcomes. Policies aimed at improving energy infrastructure and providing reliable and affordable energy sources are crucial to unlocking educational opportunities for more children and enabling them to embark on their educational journeys.
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Sharif, M., & Khan, F. N. (2023). Unveiling the Implications of Energy Poverty for Educational Attainments in Pakistan: A Multidimensional Analysis. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 13(5), 472–483. https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.14944