The Nexus among Civil Aviation, Energy Performance Efficiency and GDP in terms of Ecological Footprint: Evidence from France and Finland
The major goal of this research paper is to determine the long-run linkage among variables and the impact of civil aviation, energy productivity (efficiency), economic growth (GDP), on ecological footprint through conducting the multivariate regression method, Phillips‑Ouliaris and Engle‑Granger, Jarque – Bera Normality, and Cusum tests from 1970 to 2020. According to results of multivariate regression method, civil aviation, energy efficiency, and economic growth affect the ecological footprint from 1970 to 2020 in France which is coincide with Phillips‑Ouliaris and Engle‑Granger tests. On the contrary, there is no effect of independent variables on dependent variable (ecological footprint) in Finland which is consistent with Phillips‑Ouliaris and Engle‑Granger tests. In this respect, The long-run relation of the model is verified by the cointegration test of Engle-Granger and Phillips-Ouliaris for France. However, there is no long-run co-integration among variables for Finland from 1970-2020. To sum up, empirical results of France is verified EKC hypothesis. However, EKC hypothesis is not verified for Finland.