Investigating Growth-Energy-Emissions Trilemma in South Asia

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AbstractThis paper situates the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 7, 8, and 13 to investigate the growth-energy-emissions trilemma. It uniquely contributes to the discourse by using carbon emissions per (emissions), GDP per capita (economic growth), energy use per capita (nonrenewable energy) and renewable energy from seven South Asian countries covering 1990 to 2019 to determine the effect of economic growth and energy use on emissions and if its interaction with either energy variant enhances or dims the effect of energy on emissions. Consistent findings from panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE), feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) and bootstrapping ordinary least squares (BOLS) reveal that: (1) economic growth intensifies emissions, (2) renewable energy exhibit emissions-reducing properties; (3) nonrenewable energy intensifies emissions, (4) economic growth sustains the emissions-reducing impact of renewable energy; and (5) economic growth diminishes the harmful effect of nonrenewable energy. Given these, we submit that the interaction of economic growth enables the "good" effect of renewable energy. At the same time, it reduces the "bad" effect nonrenewable energy on carbon emissions. These outcomes engender a new line of argument that the extent of economic growth cuts carbon emissions level. Therefore, economic growth is an essential determinant of carbon emissions. Policy implications discussed.Keywords: carbon emissions, economic growth, nonrenewable energy, renewable energy, South AsiaJEL Classifications: C52, O40, O55, Q40, Q50DOI:


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Author Biography

Bosede Ngozi Adeleye, Covenant University

Bosede Ngozi ADELEYE (PhD) is a researcher and lecturer in the Department of Economics and Development Studies, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria. A graduate of Ogun State University, Nigeria and University of Sussex, UK, her research interest revolves around income inequality, industrial economics, financial economics, agricultural economics and issues related to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). She is quantitative inclined and has recently published some works relating to her PhD thesis with research findings presented in international conferences/workshops. She is also the tutor and creator of CrunchEconometrix a digital platform she designed to teach hands-on econometrics to millions of learners across the world. Her YouTube Channel has a growing daily subscriber base which serves as a succour to beginners and intermediate users of econometric tools. She is proficient in the use of Stata, EViews and SPSS analytical software. She serves as a reviewer to some international journals.




How to Cite

Adeleye, B. N., Akam, D., Inuwa, N., Olarinde, M., Okafor, V., Ogunrinola, I., & Adekola, P. (2021). Investigating Growth-Energy-Emissions Trilemma in South Asia. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 11(5), 112–120. Retrieved from




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