Are Urban Rwandan Households using Modern Energy Sources? An Exploration of Cooking Fuel Choices

Fydess Khundi-Mkomba


This study employed a discrete choice framework to explore cooking energy use patterns amongst urban Rwandan households using the latest EICV 5 microeconomic survey dataset. Specific analysis focused on choices for three primary cooking fuels namely: firewood, charcoal and liquidified petroleum gas. The findings show that ordered model provided better prediction for primary fuel choices rather than the secondary choices for multiple fuel users with income as a key determinant. Furthermore, asset index, house ownership, geographical location, number of rooms, household size and household head labor market participation were some of the non-price factors that significantly affected the choice probability for using charcoal as transitional fuel and liquidified petroleum gas as a modern fuel in Rwandan country context. Robustness test of the results emphasizes the need for government in collaboration with modern energy suppliers to have clean energy use campaigns and do market segmentation through repackaging of smaller gas cylinders so that   many low- and middle-income households become aware and use modern energy services. This is essential to ensure good prospect of energy transition for the developing country case context amidst urbanization and climate change.

Keywords:  Energy; Households; Urban; Rwanda; Fuel

JEL Classifications: D12, O12, Q420



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